Risk Factors for Osteoporosis
Risk Factors for Women
- Menopause: Natural or surgical menopause increases your risk of osteoporosis. The risk of fracture increases significantly five years after menopause. Though initial fractures may be in the wrist or spine , these strongly predict the later development of severe osteoporosis and hip fracture .
- Amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation before menopause): Your risk of osteoporosis increases if you miss menstrual periods for three months or longer. Amenorrhea may occur with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia , or with excessive or intensive exercise, such as long distance running.
- Family history of osteoporosis
- Gastrointestinal malabsorption
- Having another endocrine disorder (eg, thyroid disorder, diabetes)
Risk Factors for Men
Risk Factors in Both Sexes
- Medicines to suppress the immune system
- Hormonal therapy
- Thyroid medicines
- Antidepressants (eg, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
- Antiseizure medicines
- Medicines containing aluminum (eg, certain antacids)
- Long-term heparin therapy
- Glitazones (diabetes medicine)
- Cardiovascular disease
- Liver disease (eg, cirrhosis )
- Kidney disease
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Type 2 diabetes
- Cushing’s syndrome
- Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency)
- Gastrointestinal disorders, especially those causing malabsorption
- Eating disorder
- Depression (possibly be due to higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol, which may contribute to loss of bone density)
- Inherited disorders (eg, Marfan syndrome , Ehler-Danlos syndrome , porphyria )
- Cancer (eg, lymphoma, leukemia, myeloma )
- Treatment for cancer (eg, chemotherapy , radiation therapy )
- Organ transplant
- Crohn's disease
- Premature birth
- Anorexia nervosa
- Asthma or other diseases that are treated with corticosteroids
- Disorders that cause malabsorption (eg, cystic fibrosis , inflammatory bowel disease , celiac disease )
- Conditions that cause low hormone levels (eg, delayed puberty, delayed onset of periods in girls, infrequent or no periods in girls)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ .
Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen ND, Nguyen TV. Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: a Bayesian meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:943-950.
National Osteoporosis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.nof.org/ .
Osteoporosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated December 2009. Accessed December 22, 2009.
Osteoporosis. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated December 2009. Accessed December 29, 2009.
Osteoporosis: frequently asked questions. Womens Health.gov. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/FAQ/osteoporosis.cfm#c . Updated September 22, 2009. Accessed December 22, 2009.
1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Loke YK, Singh S, Furberg CD. Long-term use of thiazolidinediones and fractures in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2009;180:32-39.
1/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Carbone LD, Johnson KC, Bush AJ, et al. Loop diuretic use and fracture in postmenopausal women: findings from the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:132-140.
12/29/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C. Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores. BMJ. 2009;339:b4229.
- Reviewer: Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 09/2011 -
- Update Date: 09/22/2011 -