What Is Typhoid?
- High fever, usually up to 103˚F or 104˚F
- Stomach pains
- Loss of appetite
What Is the Typhoid Vaccine?
- An inactivated (killed) vaccine that is injected
- A live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine administered orally
Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
- People who are traveling to areas outside the US where typhoid commonly exists
- People who are in close contact with an individual who has or carries typhoid
- People who work with S. typhi , typically laboratory workers
What Are the Risks Associated With the Typhoid Vaccine?
- Redness or swelling at injection site (inactivated only)
- Abdominal pain
- Nausea or vomiting
- Changes in behavior
- Extremely high fever
- Difficulty breathing, hoarse voice, or wheezing
- Pale skin
- Rapid heartbeat
Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
For the shot, the following individuals should not get vaccinated. Those who:
- Have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous typhoid vaccine or any of its components
- Are under age 2 years
For the oral vaccine, the following individuals should not get vaccinated. Those who:
- Have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous typhoid vaccine or its components
- Are under age 6 years
- Are currently taking certain antibiotics
- Have a weakened immune systems, including HIV/AIDS
- Are being treated with drugs that can compromise the immune system, such as steroids
- Have cancer
- Are undergoing treatment for cancer with medicine or radiation
What Other Ways Can Typhoid Be Prevented Besides Vaccination?
- Frequent and thorough hand washing, particularly before handling food
- Properly cleaning and preparing food to ensure no contamination
- Not eating uncooked vegetables or fruit that cannot be peeled
- Boiling water before drinking or using
- Avoiding potentially contaminated food or water
What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/
Vaccine and Immunizations Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/
Bhutta ZA, Khan MI, Soofi SB, Ochiai RL. New advances in typhoid Fever vaccination strategies. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;697:17-39.
Guidelines for the investigation and management of typhoid fever cases, carriers, and contacts. State of Maryland, Community Health Program website. Available at: http://edcp.org/guidelines/typhoid.html . Accessed February 6, 2007.
Nelson CB, de Quadros C. Coalition against typhoid: a new, global initiative to advance typhoid vaccination. Vaccine. 2011;29(38):6443.
Typhoid. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Immunization Program website. Available at: http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:PwfwCLwRiZYJ:www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/VIS/vis-typhoid.pdf+typhoid+vaccinehl=engl=usct=clnkcd=1 . Accessed March 3, 2007.
Typhoid vaccine. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-typhoid.pdf . Published May 2004. Accessed November 16, 2009.
- Reviewer: Lawrence Frisch, MD, MPH
- Review Date: 12/2011 -
- Update Date: 12/30/2011 -