(Toxemia of Pregnancy; Pregnancy-induced Hypertension; Preeclampsia)
|Cardiovascular System and Kidneys|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Genetic factors
- Dietary factors
- Problems with blood vessel function
- Autoimmune disorder—when the immune system destroys healthy body tissue
- High blood pressure
- Swelling that does not go away, especially in the legs and face
- Large amounts of protein in your urine
- Bloating or water retention
- Noticeably swollen ankles or feet; however, some mild swelling during pregnancy may be normal
- Swelling of the face and upper body when waking up
- Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
- Upper abdominal pain
- Nausea or vomiting
- Seizures or convulsions
Blood Pressure Measurement
- The first number in your blood pressure reading has risen 30 mmHg or more, or
- The second number has risen 15 mmHg or more
Fluid Retention Assessment
- Complete blood count
- Clotting factors
- Kidney and liver function
Early Delivery of the Baby
Supplements and Medication
- Medicines to lower blood pressure
- Magnesium sulfate to reduce the risk of convulsions
- Daily calcium supplement—may reduce the risk of eclampsia, particularly if your calcium intake was low before pregnancy
- Taking frequent blood pressure readings
- Getting plenty of rest, mostly in bed
- Obtaining help to prepare meals, do housework, and care for family members
Admission to the Hospital
- Lowering your blood pressure with medication
- Medicines to prevent eclampsia
- Monitoring your baby's condition
- Making sure you get enough rest
- Get early and regular prenatal care. Early treatment of pre-eclampsia may prevent eclampsia.
- If you have chronic high blood pressure, keep it under control during pregnancy.
- Get your doctor's approval before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medicines.
- Do not smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy.
- Eat regular, healthful meals and take prenatal vitamins.
- Ask your doctor if you should take a daily calcium supplement. In women who have a low calcium intake, supplementation may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and premature birth.
- Your doctor may recommend that you take aspirin to lower your risk of pre-eclampsia.
American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
Duley L, Henderson-Smart D, Knight M, King J. Antiplatelet drugs for prevention of pre-eclampsia and its consequences: systematic review. BMJ. 2001;322:329-333. Review.
High blood pressure during pregnancy. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq034.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130314T1318525934 . Accessed March 14, 2013.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 3, 2013. Accessed March 14, 2013.
Preeclampsia and eclampsia overview. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development website. Available at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/preeclampsia/Pages/default.aspx. Updated November 30, 2012. Accessed March 14, 2013.
Pregnancy-induced hypertension. Family Doctor.org website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/pregnancy-induced-hypertension.html . Updated August 2010. Accessed March 14, 2013.
Schroeder B. ACOG practice bulletin on diagnosing and managing pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Jul 15;66(2):330-331. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0715/p330.html. Accessed March 14, 2013.
What is preeclampsia? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/hbp/issues/preg/preclamp.htm. Accessed March 14, 2013.
9/30/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Samuels-Kalow ME, Funai EF, Buhimschi C, et al. Prepregnancy body mass index, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and long-term maternal mortality. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:490.e1-6. Epub 2007 Aug 21.
7/6/2006 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Villar J, Abdel-Aleem H, Merialdi M, et al. World Health Organization randomized trial of calcium supplementation among low calcium intake pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:639-649.
7/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Kumar A, Devi SG, Batra S, Singh C, Shukla DK. Calcium supplementation for the prevention of pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;104:32-36.
8/6/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Bujold E, Roberge S, Lacasse Y, et al. Prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction with aspirin started in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(2 Pt 1):402-14.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 03/14/2013 -