Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2005.
Griffith’s 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.
Okeson, Jeffrey. Clinical Management of Temporomandibular Disorders and Occlusion. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby 2007.
Siccoli MM, Bassetti CL, Sándor PS. Facial pain: a clinical differential diagnosis.
Lancet Neurology. 2006;5(3):257-267.
TMJ. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
website. Available at:
Updated December 2010. Accessed April 5, 2013.
TMJ. American Dental Association Mouth Healthy website. Available at:
http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/t/tmj. Accessed April 5, 2013.
TMJ (temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders). National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at:
http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/TMJ. Updated March 21, 2013. Accessed April 5, 2013.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114703/Temporomandibular-joint-TMJ-dysfunction. Updated May 11, 2015. Accessed October 5, 2016.