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Bladder Biopsy

Definition

A bladder biopsy is a procedure to obtain a sample of your bladder tissue. It is usually done during a cystoscopy, a procedure that examines the bladder with a lighted scope. After the tissue is removed, it is examined under a microscope.

Cystoscopy of the Bladder
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Reasons for Procedure

Bladder biopsies are done to look for tumors when cancer is suspected. Biopsies may also be done to further investigate abnormalities of the bladder wall such as:

  • Inflammation
  • Cysts
  • Pouches
  • Ulcers
  • Polyps

Possible Complications

Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:

  • Urinary tract infections
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Pain, bleeding, or dribbling during urination
  • Frequent urination
  • Problems with leaking urine

What to Expect

Prior to Procedure

Your doctor may do a physical exam, imaging tests, or blood tests.

Before your biopsy:

  • Avoid eating or drinking for 8-12 hours
  • Talk to your doctor if you take any medications, herbs, or supplements. You may need to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure, like:
    • Anti-inflammatory drugs
    • Blood thinners
    • Antiplatelets
  • Arrange for a ride home and for someone to stay with you for the first night.

Anesthesia

Local anesthesia is used to numb the area in and around the urethra. The urethra is a tube that allows urine to drain from the bladder to the outside of the body.

A sedative may be given to help you relax.

Description of Procedure

You will lie on an exam table. A small tool called a cystoscope will be inserted into the urethra and passed into the bladder. Your bladder will be drained of urine. Next, your bladder will be filled with sterile water or saline solution to allow a better view of the bladder walls. Any suspicious tissue will be removed from the bladder wall for further testing.

How Long Will It Take?

Less than 30 minutes

How Much Will It Hurt?

You may feel some discomfort or urge to urinate when the bladder is filled during the biopsy. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.

Post-procedure Care

After the procedure, you may experience a burning sensation or see small amounts of blood when you urinate. This should go away within 48 hours.

Call Your Doctor

Call your doctor if any of these occur:

  • Increasing frequency, urgency, burning, or pain during urination.
  • You are unable to urinate or empty your bladder completely.
  • Increased blood in your urine.
  • Signs of infection, including fever and chills.

If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.

Revision Information

  • American Cancer Society

    http://www.cancer.org

  • Urology Care Foundation

    http://www.urologyhealth.org

  • Canadian Cancer Society

    http://www.cancer.ca

  • Canadian Urological Association

    http://www.cua.org

  • Cystoscopy. Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=77&display=1. Accessed December 2, 2013.

  • Cystoscopy and ureteroscopy. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/cystoscopy. Updated March 28, 2012. Accessed December 2, 2013.

  • How is bladder cancer diagnosed? American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bladdercancer/detailedguide/bladder-cancer-diagnosis. Updated January 17, 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013.

  • Q&A: What you should know before surgery. American Society of Anesthesiologists Lifeline to Modern Medicine website. Available at: http://www.lifelinetomodernmedicine.com/Anesthesia-Topics/QA-What-You-Should-Know-Before-Surgery.aspx. Accessed December 2, 2013.